Stanford University Stanford Computer Science Department
Abstract    |    Introduction    |    Contacts    |   

   What is PD?
   Political Push
   The Developer

Philosophical Perspective
   Design Philosophy


   Expert Systems Design
   Usability Engeering
   Value Senstive Design

History of PD

  • Participatory Design History,

  • Ehn, P. and Kyng, M. (1987): The collective resource approach to system design, in Bjerknes et al, (1987), pp. 17-57

  • Greenbaum, J. and Kyng, M. (eds.) (1991): Design at Work: Cooperative Design of Computer Systems Lawrence Erlbaum Ass., Hillsdale, New Jersey

  • P. S. Adler and T. A. Winograd (Eds.), Usability: Turning technologies into tools, Chapter 4. Scandinavian Design: On Participation and Skill, (pp. 96-132). New York: Oxford University Press, 1 992. (available at

  • Procter, R.N. and Williams, R.A. (1992): HCI: Whose Problem Is IT Anyway?, in Larson and Unger (eds): Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 385-396

  • User Participation and Democracy. A Discussion of Scandinavian Research on System Development Gro Bjerknes, Avenir A.S., P.O.Box 6824 St. Olavs pl., N-0130 Oslo, Norway Tone Bratteteig, University of Oslo, Department of Informatics, N-0316 Oslo, Norway Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, vol 7 no 1, April 1995, pp. 73-98

  • Computers in Context (1986), A video "selling" the Scandinavian model to a U.S. audience, California Newsreel, Ideas in Motion. Imprint: San Francisco, Calif. : California Newsreel, c1986. [1 videocassette (34 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. ]

Philisophical Concepts of PD

  • Ehn, Pelle (1993). Scandinavian design: On participation and skill. Participatory Design: Principles and Practices. D. Schuler and A. Namioka. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: 41-77.

Competing Strategies

PD and Product Development

  • Grudin, Jonathan (1993). Obstacles to participatory design in large product development organizations. Participatory Design: Principles and Practices. D. Schuler and A. Namioka. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: 99-119.

  • Goldenberg, Ana. Participatory Design.
    Mon, Oct 30, 1995. Accessed Friday, Mar 16, 2001.

PD in the US

  • Gower, Brookfield "Computer Democracy: A Scandinavian Challenge" VT(1987)

  • Mumford E, Henshall D. articipative approach to computer systems design, Associated Business Press, London. (1991).

  • Jones, Peter H. "PDC 2000 - Participatory Design Conference.

  • IBM. Ease of Use: Design Page.

  • Salzman, Harold and Stephen Rosenthal, Software By Design: Shaping Technology and the Workplace, Oxford University Press, New York. (1994).

  • Kuhn, Sarah. "Design for People at Work" from Terry Winograd, Bringing Design to Software, Reading, MA: Adison-Wesley, 1996.

Product Development
   Vendor Adoption
   Product Design

In the US
   New Context
   Current Use

   Applied PD

Abstract    |    Introduction    |    Contacts