64-bit.” <> An excellent introduction to the topic of 64 bit computing. It outlined the basic history of the processor, its advantages and disadvantages, and the challenges caused by the transition to 64 bit computing. In addition, some other valuable web links were provided on this page.

“64 Bit Oberon.” In ACM SIGPLAN Notices. Volume 33, Issue 2 (February 1998), p. 56 – 58. This paper described the language extensions of the Oberon-2 programming language required to support 64 bit pointers and integers. This was helpful in learning about the software implications caused by the transition to 64 bit computing.

“64-Bit Technology: Driving the Digital Media Revolution.” <> This paper described the impacts of 64-bit technology on digital audio and video technologies. AMD predicts that their new technology will drastically increase the ability of artists in these fields.

“64 Bits? Wait for Longhorn.” <,aid,120913,00.asp.> The author of this article describes the upcoming improvements in Microsoft’s 64-bit operating system, Longhorn. Longhorn is characterized as significantly better than the XP x64 version that has already been released.

“Accelerating Mobile Video: A 64-Bit SIMD Architecture for Handheld Applications.” In Journal of VLSI Signal Processing Systems, Volume 41, Issue 1 (August 2005), p. 21 – 34. This article described an interesting application of 64-bit processing, shedding light on the importance of such a processor in day-to-day computing needs. The authors describe how key features of the new architecture improve the performance of video applications.

“AMD 64 Bit Technology: The AMD x86-84 Programmers Overview.” <> Intended to describe the motivation for its new 64 bit processor, this document provided a great deal of information about the advantages of 64 bit processing. Detailed explanations of memory organization, software compatibility, and addressing systems were given, all of which were particularly useful in understanding the needs that AMD sought to meet with its new product.

“AMD Athlon 64: 64-bit vs. 32-bit Head On Comparison.” <> This source provided graphical data on benchmarking the 32-bit and 64-bit processors for a variety of tasks.

“AMD Opteron: First look.” < In Linux Journal, Volume 2003, Issue 111  (July 2003), p. 2. This was a paper about AMD’s 64-bit Opteron, including its backward compatibility with 32-bit OS software.

“A New Page Table for 64 Bit Addresses.” In Proceedings of the Fifteenth ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles (1995), p. 184 – 200. In this paper, the impact of 64-bit computing on page table data structures is discussed. In response to 64 bit virtual address spaces, the authors propose a novel structure using sub-blocking for page tables. This article gave us the opportunity to trace through a real hardware problem and its solution.

“Apple Unveils 64-Bit G5 Macintoshes .” <,1895,1654961,00.asp.> This source describes Steve Jobs’ excited announcement about Apple’s switch to 64-bit computing. The article is useful in understanding marketing strategies of the 64-bit CPU as well as the reasoning behind Apple’s adoption of the new technology.

“Are you ready for a 64-bit PC?” In PC World (July 2003). <,aid,111508,00.asp.> This article broadly explained the changes surrounding 64-bit computing and the resulting software compatibility issues.

“Comparison of 32-bit and 64-bit memory architecture for 64-bit editions of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003.” <;en-us;294418> This resource compared the memory components of the 32-bit and 64-bit system. Useful in understanding the ramifications of 64-bit processing in terms of virtual memory, system cache, and other architectural components.

“CPUs with 64bit Architecture: Evolution or Revolution?” <> This article gave a comprehensive history of the 64-bit processor and assessed exactly how ‘novel’ the processor is for the personal computing industry.

“Data Size Neutrality and 64-bit Support.” <> The author describes the fundamental changes that are required in software to accommodate 64-bit systems, paying particular attention to changes in the UNIX platform.

“Get Your Game On.” <,aid,119561,pg,3,00.asp.> This article explained the developments in 64-bit technology in the context of improved computer games. Specifically, the names of several 64-bit games and the timeframe on which they will be released are mentioned.

Lorin, Harold. “Introduction to Computer Architecture and Organization.” New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1989. This text provided an outline of the basic components of computer hardware. Instruction sets, memory addressing, and the concept of power were covered in detail.

“Intel's 64-Bit Pentium 4s Hit The Streets.” March 2005. <,1558,1777753,00.asp.> A news article surrounding the release of 64-bit Pentium chips, this was helpful in understanding the effects of 64 bit computing on the home user.

“Intel Extended Memory 64 Technology.” <> This white paper by Intel described their EM64T extensions to standard 486 processor architecture, and its implications.

“Microprocessor Historic Data.” Stanford University VLSI Group. <> This site contains images of the major processors in the history of computing. In addition to providing a comprehensive timeline of microprocessor releases, this page contained images of early chips.

Murray, William D. “Computer and Digital System Architecture.” Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey : Prentice Hall, 1990. In this book, a brief history of computing and digital systems was given in addition to an explanation of modern architecture theory and structure. In particular, the section on instruction-set processors and the representation of data within them was useful for understanding the advantages of having 64 bit registers.

“Shadow Ops Red Mercury.” <> The website of a recent 64-bit game released by Ataris, this page includes screenshots of the difference in digital images between 32 and 64 bit systems. This was useful in assessing the influence of 64-bit technology on mainstream games and media.

“The Antique Chip Collector’s Page.” <> This site contains useful information on the early history (1970s onwards) of microprocessors. In particular, we found the description of Intel’s 8008 processor helpful in our construction of the history.

“The Intel 4004: A testimonial from Fedorico Faggin, its designer, on the first microprocessor’s thirteenth anniversary.” <> Here we found a detailed description of the history and development of Intel’s 4004 chip. Fedorico Faggin’s vision for the chip includes applications in both calculators as well as personal computing.

“What You Need To Know About The Shift to 64-Bit Computing.” <> An article explaining the basics of 64-bit computing and the ways in which it might enter mainstream applications. The author concludes that 64-bit processing may not be necessary for home users today, but that in the near future it will be.