Annotated Sources

  1. Abilene Backbone Network. Internet2. 11 Sept. 2003. <>.

    The official website for the Abilene backbone network of Internet2 provides many resources describing the network architecture and the physical location of optical links. It also provides helpful information about the types of connections used and the current status of upgrades to the backbone.

  2. Abilene Upgrade. Indiana University. Aug. 2003. 13 Sept. 2003 <>.

    This site provided information about the history of the Abilene backbone and the progress of current efforts to upgrade the network to 10 Gbps capacity.

  3. Damore, Lawrence J. II, Jerome A. Johnson, Robert S. Dixon, Michael A. Iverson, E. Christopher Ellison, W. & Scott Melvin. ěTransmission of Live Laparoscopic Surgery over the Internet2. The American Journal of Surgery. 178.5 (1999): 415-7.

    This article describes an experiment where video and audio were transmitted across Internet2 between a live surgery and multiple other sties. Its comparison of the quality achieved to similar procedures previously done on the standard Internet will help us demonstrate the increased capability of Internet2. The article also serves an example of the potential of bi-directional surgery video broadcasts to enhance teaching and allow remote consultation and collaboration during a procedure.

  4. Dev, P., D. Harris, D. Gutierrez, A. Shah, & S. Senger. ěEnd-to-End Performance Measurement of Internet Based Medical Applications.î Proceedings of the American Medical Informatics Association Annual Symposium (2002): 205-9.

    This article describes a series of tests done to measure the effect of network congestion on two medical applications. It provides useful information describing the needs of current applications and the minimum network performance required. The analysis of the effects of packet loss, delay, and jitter will help us describe the motivation for improved networks such as Internet2 as well as the problems that new network technologies have not yet solved.

  5. Dev, Parvati, PhD, Kevin Montgomery, PhD, Steven Senger, PhD, W. LeRoy Heinrichs, MD, PhD, Sakti Srivastava, MD, Kenneth Waldron, PhD. "Simulated Medical Learning Environments on the Internet." Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. (2002); 9:437-447.

    This article details the history, usage, and significance of both the Anatomy and Surgery workbenches developed by SUMMIT. It will prove useful in demonstrating the way in which medical groups, particularly at Stanford, have been taking advantage of NGI technologies in order to enhance medical learning through advanced haptics and imaging.

  6. Feied, Craig. ěTelecommunications and the Next Generation Internet for Health Care.î Annals of Emergency Medicine. 38.3 (Sept. 2001): 293-302.

    The writer describes the development of the telecommunications such as in wire and satellite communications, and how the growth of the Internet was accelerated by these developments. However, the Internet has become more and more limited in capabilities due to its congestion, and new networks such as Internet2 and Next Generation Internet has been developed to overcome these problems. The writer goes on to describe the many health care projects that has been initiated to make use of the new technologies.

  7. Gandsas, A., R. Altrudi, M. Pleatman, and Y. Silva. ěLive Interactive Broadcast of Laparoscopic Surgery via the Internet.î Surgical Endoscopy: Ultrasound and Interventional Techniques. 12 (1998): 252-55. SpringerLink. Stanford University, Stanford, CA. 13 Sept. 2003. <>.

    This article described a live video transmission of laparoscopic surgery over the standard Internet done in 1997. It provided helpful statistics about the performance of the test that served as a base of comparison for a similar test done using Internet2.

  8. Heinrichs, LeRoy, MD, PhD. Personal Interview. 11 Sept. 2003.

    Dr. Heinrichs gave us a general sense of SUMMIT's work in both the Anatomy and Surgery Workbenches, both currently being developed for academic usage at Stanford at elsewhere. Both workbenches were designed witht the intention of utilizing new Internet 2 technology to transmit enormous amounts of data over the web. Dr. Heinrichs also invited us to use the simulators, performing simple grasping techniques with simulated tools, watching 3D renderings of dissected humans, and using iFeelIt, a program designed to train students to use the haptic devices. This interview was an informative, hands-on interaction with the medical technology being developed at SUMMIT.

  9. History of the Internet and Internet2. Worchester Polytechnic Institute Information Technology Division. Mar. 2003. 11 Sept. 2003. <>

    The website outlines the major milestones in the development of the Internet from ARPAnet, and Internet2 from National Science Foundationís earlier effort to establish the NSFnet: a high-speed backbone between its supercomputer centres.

  10. Holstein, William J. "Building the Next Internet." U.S. News. 13 Sep 1999. <>.

    This article describes the reasons behind the setting up of Internet2 and gives a brief account of the events that led to the formation of the consortium.

  11. Internet2 - Home. Internet2. 9 Sept. 2003. <>.

    This website provides a comprehensive overview of the Internet2 project: its collaborators, organization, applications, and background. This is a hub for information with links that lead us to more detailed information, but also provides us with a better understanding of the actual project, its technology, and its scope.

  12. Internet2 at Stanford. Stanford University. 13 Sept. 2003. <>.

    This site provided information about Stanford Universityís involvement in Internet2 as well as a map of the vBNS backbone network.

  13. Internet2 News. Internet2. 13 Sept. 2003. <>.

    The website has an extensive and up-to-date collection of all the news related to Internet2 and its partners. It gives a detailed account of the history of Internet2.

  14. Internet2 Preliminary Engineering Report. Internet2. Jan. 1997. 11 Sept. 2003 <>.

    This document describes the master plan for the design of the Internet2 network and is a useful resource for information about the network structure and engineering goals. Although the document is dated, the Internet2 site still references it as very accurate and it provides an understanding of the fundamentals of Internet2 architecture.

  15. IP Next Generation Overview. Sun Microsystems. 14 May 1995. 13 Sept. 2003 <>.

    This document describes the motivation for creating a new version of the Internet Protocol and describes the features of IPv6, also known as IPng. It contributed to the section of this site describing the differences between IPv4 and IPv6.

  16. Mambretti, Joel and Andrew Schmidt. Next Generation Internet: Creating Advanced Networks and Services. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999.

    This book describes in detail the design and structure of the Next Generation Internet Initiative and Internet2. It provides valuable information about the protocols used on the network, the purpose of key nodes in the network, and the design goals of the network.

  17. NGI Front. Stanford University. 8 Sept. 2003. <>.

    This website contains information about Stanford's involvement in the Next Generation Internet (NGI) Initiative, specifically its contributions to using the technology in innovative biomedical applications. These applications, specifically, include a local NGI testbed network and the Anatomy and Surgical workbenches. This site will provide us with general background information on Stanford's involvement with the technology so we can better understand the significance of work being done on campus.

  18. NLMís Next Generation Internet (NGI) Awards. United States National Library of Medicine. 25 Feb. 2000. 11 Sept. 2003 <>.

    This site contains descriptions of two rounds of contracts awarded by the National Library of Medicine to projects researching medical applications of the Next Generation Internet. The descriptions provide a good summary of the various uses of NGI in the medical field up to early 2000.

  19. Request for Comments 791: Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Sept. 1981. 13 Sept. 2003 <>.

    The official standard for IPv4, this document provided information about the features, header format, and addressing of IPv4.

  20. Request for Comments 1715: The H Ratio for Address Assignment Efficiency. The Internet Society. Nov. 1994. 13 Sept. 2003 <>.

    This document describes research done to determine the best and worst case scenarios for the maximum number of usable addresses in systems with address lengths of various sizes. It contributed to our information about the number of addresses available in IPv6.

  21. Request for Comments 2460: Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification. The Internet Society. Dec. 1998. 13 Sept. 2003 <>.

    This is the official standard for IPv6. It provided information about the header format of IPv6 packets and the new features of IPv6 that are included in this site.

  22. Request for Comments 3513: Internet Protocol 6 (IPv6) Addressing Architecture. The Internet Society. Apr. 2003. 13 Sept. 2003 <>.

    The official standard for IPv6 addressing, this document provided information about the addressing scheme and convention for writing addresses used in IPv6.

  23. Shattuck, D.W., J. Rapela, E. Asma, A. Chatzioannou, & J. Qi, R.M. Leahy. ěInternet2-based 3D PET image reconstruction using a PC cluster.î Physics in Medicine and Biology. 47.15 (2002): 2785-95.

    This study created a Beowulf server cluster to provide 3D PET images to remote users across Internet2. While much of the article focuses on the optimal configuration of the servers, its descriptions of transmission speeds and requirements across the connection between the server and client are helpful to our project. In addition to providing an example of the use of Internet2 in the medical field, this research notes the data transfer rates available at the time on various links of the Internet2 network and their adequacy in this application.

  24. Shortlife, Edward H. ěHealth Care and the Next Generation Internetî. Annals of Internal Medicine. 129.2 (Jul. 1998): 138-140.

    This article looks at the improvements to health care that the Internet has brought and explores the limitations due to the small bandwidth and slow transmission. The writer describes the development of high-speed government funded networks like the Next Generation Internet and Internet2, that will allow patients to be diagnosed by specialists over long distances, and new learning strategies for medical students. He applauds the possibility that such government projects will eventually benefit the populace, just as ARPAnet did.

  25. SUMMIT Home Page. Stanford University. 9 Sept. 2003. <>.

    The website provides comprehensive information on Stanford University Medical Media and Information Technologies (SUMMIT): the people involved, the projects, current research, and the progress being made. This was a great source of people to contact to consult about their work with the project. It also helped us understand the extent to which Stanford is currently dedicating its resources to effectively utilizing NGI technologies for medical purposes.

  26. Tidmarsh, Patricia, Joseph Cummings, William R. Hersh, & Charles P. Friedman. ěDistributed Medical Informatics Education Using Internet2.î Proceedings of the American Medical Informatics Association Annual Symposium. (2002): 787-91.

    This article describes a use of Internet2 to enable videoconferencing between medical informatics students at two universities. The project demonstrates the potential of high-speed Internet connections to distribute expert knowledge to students at remote locations and to allow easier collaboration. The article will prove useful in describing the various uses of Internet2 as well as explaining the bandwidth requirements of video-based applications.

  27. Waldron, Kenneth, PhD. Personal Interview. 10 Sept. 2003.

    Dr. Waldron, Project Manager for the NGI team at Stanford and a Research Professor in the Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, provided us with an engineer's point of view of the SUMMIT project. He offered information on Stanford's current projects, the progress being made on campus, basic technical information about networking logistics, problems being encountered, and the direction the project will head in the next few years. His information is useful to us to help us understand the technical and medical significance of the SUMMIT project.

  28. Walker, Rosemary, Michael Dieter, Walter Panko, Annette Valenta. ěWhat It Will Take to Create New Internet Initiatives in Health Care.î Journal of Medical Systems. 27.1 (Feb. 2003): 95-103.

    The article describes how the Internet has met many of the potential uses that Hoben outlines for the Internet in health care, and notes that many of these goals have been achieved quickly. It outlines the development of Internet2 and Next Generation Internet and lists the many new applications that arise due to these new capabilities. Some of the major medical projects based on I2 or NGI are also summarized in the article.

  29. Zakon, Robert H. Hobbes' Internet Timeline v6.1. 13 Sept. 2003. <>.

    This website gives an accurate and detailed list of the events in the history of the Internet since the conception of the idea in the 1950s. It puts the beginning of Internet2 and Next Generation Internet into perspective.