“A* Search”. Report
Online. 9 Sept., 2003.
website is a part of the Virtual Lecture Project on Artificial Intelligence.
The method of the algorithm briefly describes the approach comparing it to
other search algorithms. A shockwave graphical demonstration is also presented
along with the stepwise breakdown of the algorithm. The approach is evaluated
on the basis of its completeness, search cost and optimization.
First Search”. Report Online. 9 Sept. 2003. <http://www-jcsu.jesus.cam.ac.uk/~tdk22/project/bestfirst.html>.
website is also a part of the Virtual Lecture Project on Artificial
Intelligence and is of the similar format as that described above. A short
description of the algorithm is followed by a graphical demonstration. The
algorithm is also broken down to three main steps and is further evaluated in
terms of the search cost and optimization.
Elithorn, Alick and Banerji, Ranan. Artificial and Human Intelligence. Amsterdam,
Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1984.
In addition to dealing with the present and future of intelligent
searching, we also hope to understand more about the history of the subject
and the questions it has posed. Artificial
and Human Intelligence is a collection of papers presented at the
International NATO Symposium on Artificial and Human Intelligence, held in
France in October of 1981. Along
with nearly every other facet of Artificial Intelligence being studied at the
time, a paper dealing with the use of heuristics and one comparing the
benefits of search approaches versus knowledge approaches are included, and
are of particular relevance to our study.
Now that study of intelligent search algorithms has become so focused,
such broad questions are rarely given so much attention as they are in these
papers, making them important resources for comparison with modern-day study.
Fürnkranz, Johannes and Kubat, Miroslav, ed.
Machines That Learn To Play Games. Huntington, New York.: Nova
Science Publishers, 2001.
title implies, Machines That Learn To Play Games deals with the
motivation behind and advances in teaching computers how to play classic,
mathematically based games. The
book gives an extensive discussion of stand-bys such as chess and go, but also
deals with more unusual games such as poker.
Of particular interest to our project is the discussion of searches
used in chess strategies, including Minimax and something called the TD(λ)
algorithm. In addition, the book
gives a short but relevant discussion of the limitations of search strategies
for game playing in general.
“Iterative Deepening”. Hyperdictionary.
9 Sept., 2003. <http://www.hyperdictionary.com/computing/iterative+deepening>.
a brief dictionary definition of the method.
“Iterative Deepening”. Report
Online. 9 Sept., 2003.
website was put together by a faculty member at Lancaster University in United
Kingdom. The technique of iterative deepening is described and compared to
other similar techniques such as the depth-first search and the breadth-first
search. The page includes several graphs as well as a statistical best/worst
case analysis for depth-first, breadth-first and iterative deepening
M. et al., “Memory Efficient A* Heuristics for Multiple Sequence Alignment.”
Proceedings of the Eighteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence.
Jul. 2002. 10 Sept. 2003. <http://www.cs.ualberta.ca/~bioinfo/pubs/2002aaai.pdf>.
shows that improving heuristics in A* search from pairwise alignments to
three-way alignments can result in an algorithm that is both faster and more
memory-efficient. The case study
algorithm represents the three-way heuristics as an octree where parts of the
octree can be dynamically recomputed and stored in order to save space.
The Search Problem. 26 Jun. 2003. 9 Sept. 2003.
with the next two entries is a group of power point presentations from
Stanford’s summer course called Introduction to Artificial Intelligence
(CS121). The search problem is formulated and two general types of search
algorithms (blind search vs. heuristic search) are analyzed. The presentation
also contains some general information about artificial intelligence.
Blind Search. 1 Jul. 2003. 9
See the above annotation.
Blind Search (contd), Heuristic Search. 3 Jul. 2003. 9
Plaat, Aske. A Minimax Algorithm faster than NegaScout. 3 Dec
1997. 9 Sept. 2003.
Provides information on MTD(f), an algorithm making use of AlphaBetaWithMemory that has performed better in games than NegaScout and has replaced NegaScout in programs such as MIT’s latest chess program. It includes a pseudocode description of the algorithm, background, and usage tips.
Aske. Research Re: Search & Re-search (PhD Thesis). 1996. 9 Sept.
Presents new theories
on SSS*, which is shown to be a variant of the depth-first algorithm, Alpha
Beta. It presents a new algorithm,
MTD(f), which outperforms some
Alpha Beta variants, and it examines ways to enhance minimax search algorithms
by highlighting a difference between Alpha-Beta’s theoretical and practical
minimal tree constraints.
Schutzer, Daniel. Artificial
Intelligence: An Applications-oriented Approach. New York, New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1987.
relatively old, this book provides a broad but basic look at the issues
central to our topic. The
attributes of breadth-first and depth-first searches are discussed, as well as
constraints on searches. This
book takes a more practical approach—including techniques for programming
searches and other aspects of the study of artificial intelligence in
LISP—but is by no means “modern” by our standards.
This makes it useful in our trace of the history of the subject as a
sort of “middle ground” between the almost purely hypothetical looks of
earlier works and the more specific and technical views we see today.
Sharples, Hogg, Hutchison, et. al. Computers and Thought: A
Practical Introduction to Artificial Intelligence. Cambridge, Mass:
MIT Press, 1989.
and Thought bills itself as a “self-contained introduction to artificial
intelligence for readers with little or no computing background.” Thus, the book offers an introduction to intelligent
searching firmly grounded in real-world questions, from finding a subway route
to completing a jigsaw puzzle. At
the same time, terms which are key to the understanding of the topic are
provided and explained. While our
audience is by no means computer illiterate (or, for that matter, living in
1989), this book offers simple methods for explaining and understanding our
topic that will help provide a foundation for discussion.
Masashi and Ishida, Toru. “Controlling the learning process of real-time heuristic search.”
10 Sept. 2003. <http://www.sciencedirect.com>.
presents two methods of coping with the learning problem in real-time
heuristic search where the algorithm does not focus well on both the
short-term goal and the long-term goal. These
two techniques, the “weighted
real-time search” and the “real-time search with upper bounds,” make the
learning process cope with the learning convergence problem more effectively
in comparison to other algorithms such as the Learning Real-Time A*
Walker, A. N. “Alpha-beta
Pruning.” The Grove Dictionary of Art Online. 9 Sept. 2003.
website is maintained by a faculty member at the University of Nottingham. The
site was designed for a game theory course and thus describes alpha-beta
pruning in the context of game theory analysis. An evaluation of the algorithm
is offered and some possible refinements of the method are suggested.
Jean-Paul. Beckb, J. Christopher.
Howea, Adele E. Whitley, L. Darrel. “Problem
difficulty for tabu search in job-shop scheduling.”
Artificial IntelligenceVolume 143,
Issue 2. Feb. 2003. 10
Sept. 2003. <http://www.sciencedirect.com>.
Tabu search algorithms are usually used for combinatorial optimization problems such as the extremely difficult and NP complete job shop scheduling problem, but the reasons for these algorithms’ successes in this area and the conditions of their success are still largely a mystery. This paper presents the first endeavor to create a problem difficulty model of tabu search in the JSP. After outlining weaknesses of this model, it then uses this model to explain two observations about problem difficulty in the JSP relating to the search cost of locating sub-optimal JSP solutions and the variation in difficulty when solving different parallelogram JSPs.