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Substance Use

Cannabis-Induced Psychosis

This is based on a paper by Marco Colizzi et al. NPJ Schizophrenia 2015 "​Interaction between DRD2 and AKT1 genetic variations on risk of psychosis in cannabis users: a case–control study"

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In context: Minor allele frequencies (MAF) of these two alleles are 16.9% (rs1076560) and 45.5% (rs2494732). Of note, MAF of these two alleles are markedly higher in Asian population (41.8% for rs1076560; 72.4% for rs2494732).
According to the paper, this is an interesting case of gene-gene-environment interaction whereby individuals with risk alleles in both genes have the highest risk (~10x) if they have a history of cannabis use, especially of daily use.

Anxiety and Drug/Alcohol Abuse

This is based on a paper by Iva Dincheva et al. Nature Communications 2014 "​FAAH genetic variation enhances fronto-amygdala function in mouse and human" and a paper by JC Sipe et al. PNAS 2002 "A missense mutation in human fatty acid amide hydrolase associated with problem drug use."

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In context: Minor allele frequency (MAF) of the A allele is 21.0%. This means, in general population, 4.6% are AA, 32.8% are AC, and 62.5% are CC. The allele is slightly rarer in Asians (MAF 15.9%) and higher in Africans (33.3%).


Brain Volume and Size

This is based on a paper by J Stein et al. Nature 2012. Two SNPs were genotyped on 23andMe platform rs7294919 and rs10784502.

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In context: Minor allele frequencies (MAF) of these two alleles are 11.9% (rs7294919) and 45.1% (rs10784502). Of note, MAF of rs7294919 C allele is higher in African population (33.6%) while MAF of rs10784502 C allele is lower in Asian population (11.6%).



Several studies have linked this mutation in FTO gene to brain circuits that control appetite (e.g. 23andMe's sweet-vs-salty report) or propensity to exercise, a recent study (Claussnitzer et al. NEJM 2015; covered here) points to fat storage and metabolism. Here's really a chance for you to blame it on the gene!

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In context: Minor allele frequencies (MAF) of this allele is 41.2% in Caucasians, 31.9% in Latinos, 14.7% in Afircans, and 13.7% in Asians. Does this explain why Asians are genearlly leaner? I wouldn't go that far. Diet still plays a major role in obesity; the gene just exacerbates it.

Sexual Orientation

Male Sexual Orientation

This is based on a paper by AR Sanders et al. Psychological Medicine 2014 "Genome-wide scan demonstrates significant linkage for male sexual orientation." The followings are a few top SNPs which are genotyped by 23andMe.

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In context: Minor allele frequencies (MAF) of these alleles are 23.1% (rs6990254), 4.6% (rs2221108; 24.7% in Africans) and 30.4% (rs5925403). Of note, the allele frequency of rs6990254 T allele is much higher in Asians (74.0%) and Africans (62.3%). Since the study was done in Caucasians, the applicability of this result in other populations is uncertain.